Mongolian powers have been attacking Baghdad for the beyond 13 days. At the point when all expectations of opposition were run, on February 10, 1258, the entryways of the divider opened. The 37th Abbasi Caliph Mustasim Balla, alongside his pastors and aristocrats, arose out of the primary door and gave up before Hulagu Khan.
Hulagu did what his granddad Genghis Khan had been accomplishing for the last 50 years. He killed every one of the elites with the exception of the caliph and the Mongol powers entered Umm al-Balad in Baghdad.
What occurred over the course of the following not many days can be measured from the expressions of antiquarian Abdullah Wasaf Shirazi:
‘They meandered the city like hungry jackasses, as furious wolves assaulting sheep. Beds and pads were torn with blades. The ladies of the group of concubines were hauled into the roads and every one of them turned into a toy for the Tatars.
Baghdad, located on both banks of the Tigris, was the city of Shahrzad of Alif Laila, the city of Dar al-Tarjuma established by Caliph Harun al-Rashid and Mamun. This was the city where translators were paid gold by weighing books. It was a city of charming mosques, spacious libraries, stately palaces, lush gardens, flourishing bazaars, seminaries, and luxurious baths.
It is difficult to estimate exactly how many people were killed in this massacre. Historians estimate that between two million and one million people were killed by swords, arrows or spears.
The history books state that the streets of Baghdad were littered with corpses. Within a few days, Hulagu Khan was forced to pitch a tent outside the city because of the stench.
At the same time, when the magnificent royal palace was set on fire, the fragrance of the precious wood of ebony and sandalwood used in it must have merged with the stench of the surrounding atmosphere.
, Photo source GALLICA DIGITAL LIBRARY
, Photo caption
Within a generation, Mongol soldiers made most of the world their tax collectors
Something similar happened in the Tigris. It is said that the gray water of this mythical river kept flowing red for first few days and then turned black. The reason for the headline was the blood that flowed from the streets into the river and the ink because the rare manuscripts preserved in hundreds of libraries in the city were thrown into the river and their ink dissolved into the river headline. Tired of
The great Persian poet Sheikh Saadi lived in Baghdad for a long time and was educated at the Nizamiya Madrasa here. So he wrote a lamentable memorial to the fall of Baghdad, one of whose poems strikes a chord.
Hulagu Khan laid siege to Baghdad on January 29, 1257. Before the attack, he wrote to Caliph Mutasim:
‘Don’t try to hit Mecca with an iron needle. Don’t mistake the sun for a candle. Tear down the walls of Baghdad immediately. Break its trenches, leave the government and come to us. If we invade Baghdad, you will find refuge in the deepest abyss and not in the highest sky.
The 37th Abbasid Caliph Mustasim Ballah did not have the glory that his great forefathers had, but his coin was still in circulation in most parts of the Muslim world and the caliph claimed to have invaded it. Upon hearing the news, all Muslims from Morocco to Iran will be overwhelmed in front of them.
So the caliph wrote in reply to Hulagu: ‘Young man, fortunately for ten days you have begun to consider yourself the master of the universe. Know that the believers who believe in God from east to west are my subjects. Return safely. ‘
Hulagu Khan had full confidence in the abilities of his Mongol soldiers. Over the past four decades, they have moved 4,000 miles from their native Mongolia, subjugating much of the known world.
During the preparations for the attack on Baghdad, not only did Hulagu Khan’s brother Manguqan send fresh troops, but also a large number of Christian soldiers from Armenia and Georgia who were eager to avenge Europe’s defeat in the Crusades against the Muslims. ۔
Not only that, the Mongol army was also technically superior and endowed with modern technology. The Mongol army had a unit of Chinese engineers specializing in the manufacture of catapults and the use of bardo. Citizens of Baghdad were familiar with the incendiary substance Nafta, which was bound and thrown with arrows, but they were never exposed to explosives.
The dynamite of the time burned slowly, the Mongols invented it, placing it in iron or baked clay tubes that would explode. In addition, the Mongols had mastered the art of making smoke bombs.
Their catapults began raining fire on the city. Not only this, the Mongols also started breaking down the wall by placing barricades under it.
Residents of Baghdad had never seen such a catastrophe before. Less than a week after the siege, the caliph offered a truce to Hulagu Khan on the condition that he pay a large ransom and have his name read in his Friday sermon in his kingdom, but Hulagu saw victory. Turned down the offer immediately.
Finally, on February 10, the caliph opened the city gates to the Mongols.
In Mongol religion, the shedding of blood on the ground by a king was considered ominous. Therefore, in the beginning, Halaku kept making the caliph believe that he had become his guest in Baghdad.
There are many well-known stories about the death of the caliph, but the most probable is the statement of Naseer-ud-Din Tusi, the minister who was present on the occasion. He writes that after keeping the caliph hungry for a few days, a covered khan was brought before him. The hungry caliph eagerly lifted the lid and saw that the vessel was full of diamond jewels. Halaku said, “Eat.”
Mustasim Balla said: ‘How can I eat diamonds?’ Halaku replied: “If you could make swords and arrows for your soldiers from these diamonds, I would not be able to cross the river.”
The Abbasid Caliph replied: “That was God’s will.”
Halaku said: “Well, now what I’m going to do with you is also God’s will.” He wrapped the caliph in sackcloth and made horses run over him so that there would be no bloodshed on the ground.
Hulagu Khan and Mutasimullah
, Photo source LE LIVRE DES MERVEILLES
, Photo caption
This picture shows Hulagu Khan giving diamond jewels to the hungry caliph Mutasimullah to eat.
Baghdad was founded by Abu Ja’far ibn al-Mansur, the ancestor of Mustasimullah, in 762, near a small village called Baghdad. In just a few decades, the town became one of the largest cities in the history of the world. Scholars, philosophers, poets, philosophers, scientists and thinkers from India to Egypt started arriving here. At the same time, the Muslims learned how to make paper from the Chinese, and the city was immediately filled with scholarly activity. In the ninth century, every citizen of Baghdad could read and write.
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Page of a book based on the methods of making medicines
According to the research of historian Tertius Chandler, from 775 to 932, Baghdad was the largest city in the world in terms of population. It also has the distinction of being the first city in the world to reach a population of one million.